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La mort de Kadhafi marque la fin de la guerre en Libye

LEMONDE.FR | 20.10.11 | 21h09   •  Mis à jour le 20.10.11 | 23h17

L’ancien dictateur libyen Mouammar Kadhafi a été tué, jeudi 20 octobre, quelques heures après la prise de sa ville natale de Syrte et deux mois après la chute de son régime. Les images du corps sanglant et dénudé du colonel Kadhafi, prises à l’aide d’un téléphone portable, ont été diffusées par des télévisions du monde entier.

>> Relire le déroulement des événements de la journée dans notre direct, jeudi

Les circonstances de sa mort ne sont pas encore totalement claires. Malgré la violence des images diffusées, des responsables du CNT assurent qu’aucun ordre de tuer Kadhafi n’a été donné et qu’il a péri dans une fusillade. Le premier ministre du CNT, Mahmoud Jibril, affirme que l’ex-dictateur a succombé à une blessure de balle à la tête avant d’être admis dans un hôpital. “Quand il a été retrouvé, il était en bonne santé et portait une arme. Quand le véhicule [qui le conduisait] a démarré, il a été pris dans un échange de tirs entre des combattants pro-Kadhafi et des révolutionnaires, et il a été tué d’une balle dans la tête”, a-t-il expliqué, se fondant sur un rapport de médecin légiste.

Une chose est sûre, le convoi “de plusieurs dizaines de véhicules” dans lequel se trouvait Mouammar Kadhafi a été bombardé par les forces de l’OTAN non loin de Syrte. Le ministre de la défense français, Gérard Longuet, a indiqué que l’aviation française avait identifié et “stoppé” la colonne dans laquelle se trouvait Kadhafi, mais précise que les tirs ne l’ont pas détruite. Les tirs français auraient divisé la colonne, et une fraction des véhicules aurait ensuite affronté des hommes du CNT. Les Etats-Unis ont assuré qu’un drone avait également participé à l’opération. La dépouille de Mouammar Kadhafi a été transportée à Misrata, ville martyre des combats qui ont abouti à la chute de son régime.

>> Lire notre décryptage Ce que l’on sait des circonstances de la mort de Kadhafi

>> Lire notre éclairage Photos et vidéos ont dévoilé la mise à mort de Kadhafi

Le sort de ses deux fils reste également flou. Le corps de Mouatassim Kadhafi a été retrouvé avec une balle dans la nuque et la main coupée, selon un commandant du CNT à Syrte. Saïf Al-Islam Kadhafi, visé par un mandat d’arrêt international pour crimes contre l’humanité, est toujours introuvable.

L’OTAN SE PRÉPARE À SE DÉSENGAGER

La disparition de Mouammar Kadhafi sonne non seulement le glas des combats sur le sol libyen, mais également celui de l’engagement de l’OTAN. “C’est un moment historique, c’est la fin de la tyrannie et de la dictature. Kadhafi a rencontré son destin”, a annoncé un porte-parole officiel du Conseil national de transition (CNT). “Sa mort va mettre fin au bain de sang et au martyre de notre jeunesse”. Le président du CNT, Moustapha Abdeljalil, devait annoncer dans la soirée de jeudi, ou vendredi au plus tard, la libération totale du pays. Jeudi, un haut responsable militaire du CNT affirmait déjà que la ville de Syrte, dernier bastion de résistance des troupes loyales à l’ancien dictateur, avait été “totalement libérée”.

>> Lire Le CNT annonce que la ville de Syrte a été “libérée”

Les nouvelles autorités libyennes avaient fait de la prise de Syrte, assiégée depuis deux mois, le point de départ du calendrier qui doit établir un nouveau régime démocratique en Libye. C’est désormais chose faite. Pour Gilles Paris, chef du service international au Monde, un des buts du gouvernement de transition, à savoir “préparer les premières élections libres du pays”, “va rencontrer des obstacles”. “Des tensions sont déjà manifestes au sein du CNT entre politiques et militaires, notamment, explique-t-il. Les multiples annonces de démission du numéro 2 de fait du CNT, Mahmoud Jibril, en attestent”.

Quant à l’OTAN, elle a annoncé qu’elle mettra fin à son opération Protecteur unifié, lancée le 31 mars, en accord avec l’ONU et le CNT, ajoutant “que ce moment était devenu proche avec la chute des bastions kadhafistes de Syrte et Bani Walid. (…) La mission de l’OTAN était théoriquement la protection des civils, rappelle Gilles Paris. La fin des combats sur quasiment la totalité du territoire en marque la fin. Cette fin était attendue avec impatience par l’OTAN, qui trouvait que la bataille de Syrte traînait trop en longueur, d’autant que la bataille de rue à laquelle elle donnait lieu limitait considérablement ses moyens d’intervention – l’OTAN n’avait pas de troupe au sol et procédait uniquement à des bombardements”.

>>Lire le chat avec Gilles Paris sur l’avenir de la Libye

Un révolutionnaire dans une rue de Sirte ravagée par les combats, le 20 octobre.

Un révolutionnaire dans une rue de Sirte ravagée par les combats, le 20 octobre.AP/Manu Brabo

A l’instar de nombreux pays de la communauté internationale, Nicolas Sarkozy a salué, avec la “disparition” du colonel Mouammar Kadhafi, une “étape majeure” pour la libération de la Libye, estimant qu’une “page nouvelle” s’ouvrait pour le peuple libyen, “celle de la réconciliation dans l’unité et la liberté”. Le secrétaire général de l’ONU, Ban Ki-moon, s’est réjoui de l’annonce de la mort de Kadhafi, y voyant “une transition historique pour la Libye”, et la secrétaire d’Etat américaine Hillary Clinton a déclaré qu’il s’agit “d’une occasion pour la Libye d’aller de l’avant”. Le président vénézuélien Hugo Chavez, soutien sans faille de l’ex- dictateur, a condamné l’“assassinat” de Mouammar Kadhafi, qu’il a qualifié de “martyr”.

>> Lire La France salue la “fin de quarante-deux ans de tyrannie”

Les faits Le CNT annonce que la ville de Syrte a été “libérée”

Kadafi slain against a backdrop of NATO support

The seven-month bombing campaign gave the Libyan revolutionaries a key weapon. It also exposed the uncertain future of the world’s most powerful military bloc.

A man holds a photo said to be the body of Moammar KadafiA man holds a photo said to be the body of Moammar Kadafi after announcement of the former leader’s death in Tripoli, Libya. (Abdel Magid al-Fergany / Associated Press / October 20, 2011)
By Henry Chu and David S. Cloud, Los Angeles TimesOctober 21, 2011, 6:45 p.m.
Reporting from London and Washington—
With the capture and death of Moammar Kadafi, NATO‘s aerial assault on Libya essentially ended the same way it began: with warplanes raining down bombs on him in the name of a U.N. mandate to protect civilians from his loyalists, while helping Kadafi’s enemies run him to ground.Throughout the seven-month operation, the alliance in essence served as the anti-Kadafi fighters’ air force, crippling the strongman’s forces and installations with relentless sorties that at times came close to killing him as well. The final assault was said to have been delivered by a French fighter jet and a U.S. Predator drone missile aiming at his convoy as he tried to flee his last stronghold in the city of Surt.As they have throughout the campaign, NATO officials insisted Thursday that they were not targeting Kadafi himself. A senior officer in the alliance said there was no specific intelligence that Kadafi was in either of the two vehicles that were hit, which were part of the larger convoy maneuvering through the area.PHOTOS: Moammar Kadafi | 1942 – 2011

“Those vehicles seemed to be directing the actions of the others, and they were struck. For all we know it could have been a lower-level leader,” the officer said.

Though video circulating worldwide shows Kadafi surviving the air attack, the bloodied leader was left in the hands of revolutionary forces who appeared either unable or unwilling to keep him safe in the murky minutes before his death.

With Kadafi now gone, NATO is expected to end its Libya intervention within days. NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said no formal decision to halt operations had been made but that with the fall of the last two major outposts of Kadafi loyalists, his hometown of Surt and the town of Bani Walid, “that moment has now moved much closer.”

Since its launch in March, the aerial campaign has involved nearly 10,000 strike sorties flown by NATO warplanes, which have taken out key military installations and other government command centers.

On Thursday, leaders of several of NATO’s European member nations were basking in Kadafi’s demise.

“People in Libya today have an even greater chance after this news of building themselves a strong and democratic future,” British Prime Minister David Cameron said outside 10 Downing St. “I’m proud of the role that Britain has played in helping them to bring that about, and I pay tribute to the bravery of Libyans who helped to liberate their country.”

Cameron had taken a political risk by leading the push for NATO intervention alongside French President Nicolas Sarkozy.

Even Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, once so friendly with Kadafi that he was photographed kissing the Libyan leader’s hand, expressed no regret over his death.

Sic transit gloria mundi,” Berlusconi was quoted as saying, Latin for “Thus passes the glory of the world.” He added, “Now the war is finished.”

But the operation also laid bare the divisions within the world’s most powerful military bloc. The difficulty in getting the alliance to take united action, the halfhearted support from some key members and the desire by the U.S. to take a back-seat role have all raised questions about the future of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

The bombing campaign and a naval embargo, launched after Kadafi had vowed to slaughter civilians in rebel-held Benghazi, went poorly at first as government fighters responded by stepping up ground attacks. But the daily pounding by NATO warplanes, especially after the Pentagon provided a small fleet of armed Predator drones, eventually helped cripple Kadafi and his remaining loyalists, without NATO suffering a single combat death.

Critics questioned whether the war was advisable for the alliance while it was engaged in a more important conflict in Afghanistan. And by August, after the anti-Kadafi forces had captured Tripoli and most of the rest of the country, some wondered if the continued airstrikes in the remaining battle zones were endangering civilians rather than protecting them. To some, the continuing assaults could be interpreted as an almost personal vendetta against a dictator who, before armed hostilities began, was being avidly courted by the West.

Several leading NATO members, including Italy and Germany, had been reluctant for NATO to get involved, one of the many signs of discord within the 28-nation alliance in March as it wrestled with whether to shoulder the responsibility of protecting Libyan civilians.

Germany abstained from voting on the U.N. resolution on the issue and withdrew troops from the Mediterranean to avoid their involvement in Libya, though Chancellor Angela Merkel agreed to send more personnel to Afghanistan to compensate. Turkey, the only Muslim nation in NATO, also expressed reservations.

In the end, only eight member countries sent their fighter jets into the skies above Libya, led mostly by the British and the French. Yet even with those nations in the vanguard, it was still American hardware and software that made the difference, despite Washington’s desire to take a smaller role, analysts said.

“This mission has brought some of NATO’s weaknesses and divisions to the forefront,” said Shashank Joshi, an analyst with the Royal United Services Institute, a security think tank in London. “It’s shown us that European members of NATO can’t function in a coherent way without incredibly extensive help from the U.S.”

henry.chu@latimes.com

david.cloud@latimes.com

Chu reported from London and Cloud from Washington.

Despite Kadafi’s end, Libya will need time to boost oil exports

October 20, 2011 |  2:01 pm
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The demise of former Libyan strongman Moammar Kadafi is a welcome development for a fledgling government still trying to get on its collective feet. But it may be several months, if not years, before the country returns to its former prowess as one of the world’s biggest oil exporters.

That was the assessment today of analysts Helima L. Croft and Amrita Sen, who took note of the fast-moving developments in the north African nation in a Barclays Capital Commodities Research Energy Flash.

“With Kadafi gone, the loyalists may become demoralized and abandon their cause. This, in turn, could make it easier for the international oil companies to return to areas that had been viewed as particularly volatile because of the presence of pro-Kadafi forces,” the analysts said, but many potential stumbling blocks remain.

PHOTOS: Moammar Kadafi | 1942 – 2011

“Serious security challenges persist in Libya that could hinder efforts to restore Libyan production fully. Divisions within the rebel ranks are undermining efforts to craft a coherent interim government. Fault lines have become increasing apparent between acting Prime Minister Mahmoud Jibril and the Islamists within the rebel coalition,” the analysts said.

Libya has about 46.4 billion barrels of oil reserves, the largest in Africa, and close to 55 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves, according to the U.S. Energy Department. In 2010, before the civil war that toppled Kadafi. total oil production was close to 1.8 million barrels a day.

That was completely shut down once the civil war began. Despite the fact that Kadafi was forced to flee the Libyan capital several days ago, the interim government has just barely begun to reestablish order and control.

Only a few days ago, for example, Libya resumed natural gas exports to Italy via the 340-mile Greenstream Pipeline that is jointly owned by the Italian oil giant Eni S.p.A. and the National Oil Co. of Libya. So far, the pipeline shipment only amount to about 150 million cubic feet per day of gas, which is just a trickle compared to the 900 million cubic feet shipped before the unrest began.

Croft and Sen also said that it was unclear just how much  damage the Libyan oil infrastructure sustained during the conflict, adding that it was also unclear whether the looting “that has resulted in significant losses of machinery such as power generators, pumps and trucks from oilfields” would be quickly brought under control.

“Thus, we maintain our view that while Libya can bring on 500,000 to 600,000 barrels a day of production by the end of this year,” the analysts said “the road to the return to pre-war levels remains a treacherous one.”

Energy markets did not react strongly to the news of Kadafi’s death. On the New York Mercantile Exchange, oil fell $1.08 to $85.03 a barrel, far below the $114 it traded at during the most intense fighting in Libya and amid other Middle East unrest earlier this year. On the ICE Futures Exchange in London, Brent crude rose $1.37 to settle at $109.76 a barrel.

ALSO:

Full coverage: Death of Moammar Kadafi

Kadafi son also reported dead

Strongman cast shadow over Middle East

–Ronald D. White

Photo: Anti-Kadafi militants ride through the streets of Surt in triumph as news of the former strongman’s demise spread, but the country faces months if not years of work in rebuilding its oil export infrastructure, financial analysts say. Credit: Esam Omran Fetori / Reuters

Video images apparently show captured Kadafi alive, then dead

Human rights activists say the footage raises questions about the ability of Libya’s provisional leaders to ensure that those suspected of human rights abuses and war crimes are treated humanely.

By Alexandra Zavis, Los Angeles TimesOctober 21, 2011

The images were gruesome.

In one grainy video clip, a figure in a blood-soaked shirt who looks like Moammar Kadafi is manhandled behind a truck by frenzied fighters shouting, “God is great!” The man stumbles and appears to struggle against his captors.

In another clip, a shirtless body lies on the ground. Fighters roll it over to show what appears to be Kadafi’s bloodied face to cheering fighters.

The amateur videos that flashed across television screens and were uploaded to YouTube on Thursday suggest that Kadafi was alive when he was captured after fighters loyal to Libya’s provisional government overwhelmed the former strongman’s hometown of Surt.

What they do not show is how and why Kadafi was killed.

According to some accounts, he was shot by his captors. Officials from Libya’s provisional government said he was placed in an ambulance bound for the city of Misurata and either succumbed to his wounds or died in crossfire along the way.

Human rights activists said the footage raises troubling questions about the ability of Libya’s provisional leaders to ensure that those suspected of human rights abuses and war crimes are treated humanely and given fair trials.

Despite appeals by members of Libya’s Transitional National Council, there have been numerous reports of revenge attacks against suspected Kadafi supporters as fighters took control of loyalist strongholds. The fighters who led the assault on Surt came from Misurata, which endured a deadly siege by Kadafi loyalists earlier in the war.

London-based Amnesty International called on the provisional government in a statement Thursday to conduct a “full, independent and impartial inquiry” into the circumstances of Kadafi’s death.

“The new authorities must make a complete break from the culture of abuse that Colonel al-Kadafi’s regime perpetuated and initiate the human rights reforms that are urgently needed in the country,” Claudio Cordone, a senior director, said in the statement.

Ed Husain, senior fellow for Middle Eastern studies at the New York-based Council on Foreign Relations, said the treatment Kadafi apparently received in the videos could lead to revenge attacks by his relatives and followers.

“What you’ve got here is essentially a man who’s not fighting back … therefore the killing would be seen as injustice,” Husain said. The footage also shows “real disrespect for the dead,” a grave insult under Islamic tradition.

“Arab tribes, and there are hundreds of those in Libya, are very proud people,” Husain said. “However much we may dislike him in the West, and some of his population might dislike him in Libya, his humiliation will be taken personally…. The question is: Will that then generate reprisal attacks?”

alexandra.zavis@latimes.com.

Leaders of some NATO nations bask in Kadafi’s demise

October 20, 2011 |  6:49 pm
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British Prime Minister David Cameron
REPORTING FROM LONDON — Leaders of several North Atlantic Treaty Organization member nations were basking Thursday in former Libyan leader Moammar Kadafi’s demise.

“People in Libya today have an even greater chance after this news of building themselves a strong and democratic future,” British Prime Minister David Cameron said outside 10 Downing St. “I’m proud of the role that Britain has played in helping them to bring that about, and I pay tribute to the bravery of Libyans who helped to liberate their country.”

Cameron had taken a political risk by leading the push alongside French President Nicolas Sarkozy for a NATO-enforced no-fly zone in the name of a U.N. mandate to protect civilians from Kadafi loyalists. Throughout the seven-month operation, the alliance in essence served as the anti-Kadafi fighters’ air force, crippling the strongman’s forces and installations with relentless sorties that at times came close to killing him as well.

PHOTOS: Moammar Kadafi | 1942 – 2011

Sarkozy called Kadafi’s death a milestone in the Libyan people’s battle “to free themselves from the dictatorial and violent regime that was imposed on them for more than 40 years,” according to the Associated Press.

Even Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, once so friendly with Kadafi that he was photographed kissing the Libyan leader’s hand, expressed no regret over his death.

Sic transit gloria mundi,” Berlusconi was quoted as saying, Latin for “Thus passes the glory of the world.” He added, “Now the war is finished.”

In Washington, President Obama said the day belonged to the Libyan people.

“One year ago, the notion of a free Libya seemed impossible. But then the Libyan people rose up and demanded their rights,” Obama said in remarks in the Rose Garden. “Today we can definitively say the Kadafi regime has come to an end…. One of the world’s longest-serving dictators is no more.”

Obama also paid tribute to the American military personnel and diplomats who took part in the Libya  intervention.

“Without putting a single U.S. service member on the ground, we achieved our objectives, and our NATO mission will soon come to an end,” Obama said.

RELATED:

Full coverage: The death of Moammar Kadafi

Remembering a wild interview with Moammar Kadafi

U.S. Predator drone fired on convoy outside Surt, officials say

— Henry Chu in London

Alexandra Zavis in Los Angeles contributed to this report.

Photo: British Prime Minister David Cameron speaks outside 10 Downing St. in London on Thursday, Oct. 20, 2011. Credit: Suzanne Plunkett / Reuters

U.S. Predator drone fired on convoy outside Surt, officials say

October 20, 2011 |  5:35 pm
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Portrait depicting Libya's Moammar Gadhafi
REPORTING FROM WASHINGTON — An American Predator drone fired at a convoy outside the Libyan city of Surt on Thursday, U.S. military officials said.

But they could not say whether its objective was the convoy that reportedly tried to spirit away former leader Moammar Kadafi.

According to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, its aircraft struck two pro-Kadafi military vehicles about 8:30 a.m. in “the vicinity of” Surt. But NATO did not specify whether the target was the same convoy as the one carrying Kadafi.

PHOTOS: Moammar Kadafi | 1942 – 2011

French Defense Minister Gerard Longuet told reporters that attacks from French aircraft stopped an 80-vehicle convoy leaving Surt, allowing anti-Kadafi forces to move in on the crippled convoy.

A U.S. military official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said later that the convoy broke up and went in different directions. The U.S. drone fired on one part of the convoy, the official said.

What happened after the airstrikes remains murky. But officials from Libya’s provisional government announced that Kadafi had been killed, and amateur footage surfaced that appeared to show the ousted leader’s body.

RELATED:

Full coverage: The death of Moammar Kadafi

Remembering a wild interview with Moammar Kadafi

Defense minister says French aerial forces hit Kadafi convoy

— David S. Cloud

Photo: A portrait depicting Libya’s former ruler Moammar Kadafi on a wall in Tripoli is riddled with bullet marks on Sept. 8, 2011. Credit: Francois Mori / Associated Press

Defense minister says French aerial forces hit Kadafi convoy

October 20, 2011 |  3:00 pm
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Revolutionary fighters celebrate in Surt, Libya
REPORTING FROM LONDON AND WASHINGTON — French Defense Minister Gerard Longuet said Thursday that his country’s aerial forces took out the convoy apparently ferrying former Libyan leader Moammar Kadafi out of his collapsing stronghold of Surt.

Longuet said French airstrikes stopped an 80-vehicle convoy trying to escape the city, allowing anti-Kadafi forces to move in on the vehicles.

There were conflicting reports about how Kadafi was killed.

PHOTOS: Moammar Kadafi | 1942 – 2011

In a statement issued at NATO headquarters in Brussels, the alliance said, “NATO aircraft struck two pro-Kadafi force military vehicles which were part of a larger group maneuvering in the vicinity of Surt.”

The statement also said the vehicles “presented a clear threat to civilians.”

NATO has maintained since it began a bombing campaign in Libya last March that it was not specifically targeting or tracking Kadafi. But it also carried out numerous attacks on palaces and other facilities he was known to use, including the large government compound in Tripoli where he lived and had offices.

The Pentagon provided armed Predator drones specifically to improve NATO’s ability  to track and attack senior figures in the regime who it said were threatening civilians by issuing commands to fighters in the field.

Fathi Bashaga, spokesman for the Misurata military council, said fighters surrounded the pro-Kadafi convoy Thursday and exchanged fire with people in several of the vehicles, according to the Associated Press. Fighters found a wounded Kadafi inside one of the vehicles. He bled to death soon after, Bashaga said.

ALSO:

Full coverage: The death of Moammar Kadafi

Libya survivor sheds light on piles of bodies around Surt

Libyan fighters taking Kadafi’s hometown street by street

— Henry Chu and David S. Cloud

Photo: Revolutionary fighters celebrate in Surt, Libya, on Thursday, Oct. 20, 2011. Credit: Associated Press

GOP loath to credit Obama for Kadafi’s end

President ObamaPresident Obama walks to the Rose Garden in advance of delivering remarks on the death of former Libyan strongman Moammar Kadafi. (Astrid Riecken / McClatchy Tribune / October 20, 2011)
By James OliphantOctober 20, 2011, 2:15 p.m.
As you might expect, Republicans aren’t exactly rushing to credit the Obama administration for first the downfall and now the death of Moammar Kadafi, even though the United States was part of the NATOforce that backed the rebels who deposed the longtime Libyan leader.Sens. John McCain and Marco Rubio, who have favored strong U.S. intervention in the Libyan conflict, took it one step further Thursday, praising the efforts of Britainand France in bringing down Kadafi.That’s right. France. It wasn’t all that long ago that House Republicans were renaming their French fries.

“Let’s give credit where credit is due. It’s the French and the British that led on this fight and probably even led on the strike that led to Kadafi’s capture—or to his death,” Rubio told Fox News Channel before making similar remarks on the Senate floor.

Obama? He fell short in supporting the rebellion. “He did the right things; he just took too long to do it and didn’t do enough of it,” Rubio said.

The freshman conservative from Florida later released a statement that included praise for the “American and NATO forces that courageously assisted on this endeavor.”

Similarly, McCain on Tuesday released an early statement that omitted any mention of the president. In an interview after he, too, congratulated the British and French, CNN’s Wolf Blitzer asked whether the administration and the U.S. military may have had something to do with the end of Kadafi.

“But the U.S. played a significant role in the NATO operation. Not just the British and the French, Sen. McCain,” Blitzer said. “The first few weeks, the first two weeks in particular, U.S. Tomahawk cruise missiles and U.S. air refueling capabilities. The Obama administration, from your perspective, deserves a lot of credit for this as well, don’t they?”

“Oh, I think they deserve credit,” the top Republican on the Senate Armed Services Committee said. “The fact is, if we had declared a no-fly zone early on, we would have never had — Kadafi would have fallen at the beginning.”

Neither House Speaker John A. Boehner, nor Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, nor Mike Rogers, chair of the House Intelligence Committee, mentioned Obama or the role of U.S. forces in bringing Kadafi down, while Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and Nancy Pelosi, the House’s top Democrat, were quick to praise the president.

“Thanks to President Obama’s leadership, our military’s strength, the cooperation of our NATO allies and the bravery of tens of thousands of ordinary Libyans who stood up to oppression, Kadafi will never again harm another human being,” Reid said.

On the campaign trail, reaction from the GOP presidential contenders has largely been circumspect. Speaking at an event in San Francisco, Michele Bachmann said the “world is a better place without Kadafi.”

Unlike Republicans such as McCain, Bachmann had opposed U.S. intervention in Libya, saying that Obama had failed to identify the national security interest at stake. “Hopefully today will also bring an end to our military’s involvement in Libya, something I have opposed to the beginning,” she said.

Jon Huntsman, who also opposed the U.S. role, offered a carefully worded statement that said America should only offer “non-military” assistance from this point forward.

Texas Gov. Rick Perry, on the other hand, seemed to be calling for some sort of American boots on the ground.  “The U.S. must also take an active role in ensuring the security of any remaining stockpiles of Kadafi’s weapons,” Perry said in a statement. “These weapons pose a real danger to the United States and our allies, and we cannot help secure them through simple observation.”

But Huntsman and Perry’s statements shared one thing in common: no mention of President Obama or the role of the U.S. military.

Mitt Romney, whose position on Libya has been less than clear at times, said in Iowa on Thursday morning that it was “about time” that Kadafi met his fate.

As ABC News’ Jake Tapper details here, Romney was initially in the camp of Republicans who charged that Obama was being too hesitant with regard to Libya. But later, after establishment of the no-fly zone, Romney warned about “mission creep” saying that Obama owed the country an explanation of American objectives in the region.

Romney advisor Eric Fehrnstrom, reacting to Tapper’s criticism, emailed several reporters in response, including Politico’s Ben Smith.

“Mitt Romney has responded to the situation in Libya as it has developed. It is the president who has been completely unclear regarding what his intention was with respect to our military’s involvement in Libya,” Fehrnstrom wrote. “Mitt Romney supported the initial humanitarian mission — as articulated by President Obama — to enforce a no-fly zone. As the mission went on, however, it became clear that President Obama had no idea about his intentions in Libya and that’s when Mitt warned against mission muddle and mission creep. The fall from power and subsequent death of Qaddafi brings to end a brutal chapter in Libya’s history, but that does not validate the president’s approach to Libya. The credit goes to the people of Libya.”

If there has been one consistent Republican theme among the many responses to Kadafi’s death, that’s it: Credit goes to the Libyan people. Or Britain. Or France. Anybody, it seems, but the president.

Times staff writer Maeve Reston contributed to this report from San Francisco.

3/7
政府軍はリビア中央部の都市、ビンジャワドを奪還、さらにラスラヌフに空爆をかけ、侵攻中。ミスラタも政府軍から再度攻撃をかけられた。トリポリ西のアズザフィヤにも猛攻撃。18名以上死亡。
アズザフィアでは9:00AMから政府軍が戦車と迫撃砲の攻撃を開始し,1:30pmでもまだつづいていた。ザフィアへの通路はすべて政府軍がコントロールしていた。数日に渡る政府軍の猛攻撃で、反政府軍はザイフィア中央広場とそばのモスクから追い出された。病院は負傷者であふれ、薬もなくなった。政府軍は先週から始まった反政府軍の制圧した都市の半分を奪還した。

Opposition fighters in Libya have been fending off fierce attacks by forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi, amid reports of a rising death toll.

Gaddafi supporters are moving eastward in an effort to push the rebels back and recapture fallen towns, with reports emerging that they have taken the central Libyan town of Bin Jawad.

The loyalists have moved on to the oil port of Ras Lanuf, which they had been bombarding with air raids.

Several people were reported to have been killed in Monday’s battles, including a family trying to flee the fighting.There has also been fierce fighting in the eastern city of Misurata, located between the capital, Tripoli, and Gaddafi’s hometown Sirte, with reports of at least 18 people killed.

On Sunday, rebels were filmed celebrating their victory over Gaddafi’s forces there, but it was short-lived as fighting ensued on Monday, with rebels saying they feared Gaddafi forces were regrouping for further attacks.

Valerie Amos, UN under-secretary-general for humanitarian affairs and emergency relief co-ordinator, said in a statement that the Benghazi Red Crescent reported that Misurata was under attack by government forces again.

“Humanitarian organisations need urgent access now,” she said. “People are injured and dying and need help immediately.”

Witnesses also told Al Jazeera that Az-Zawiyah, west of Tripoli, was under heavy attack by government forces.

Tripoli Zwaiya Misrati Sirte Bin-Jawad Benghazi Ajdabiya Tobuk Brega
The government on Monday appeared to have solidified its control of Az Zawiyah. The city had been the closest to Tripoli in opposition hands.An Az Zawiyah resident told the Associated Press news agency that government tanks and artillery opened fire on rebels around 9am local time and the attack had not stopped when he left the city at 1:30pm.All entrances to the city were under government control and the rebels had been driven out of the city’s central Martyr’s Square and a nearby mosque by the heaviest attack in several days.”The tanks are everywhere,” he said. “The hospital is running out of supplies. There are injured everywhere who can’t find a place to go.”For now, the Gaddafi government has managed to halt the rebel advance that began last week when fighters ventured beyond the opposition-controlled eastern half of the country.

3/6

ミスラタ 3/6/2011 解放後の映像
3/4
オランダ軍海兵隊3名リビア政府軍に拘束される。救出しようとしたオランダ人とEU人2名は拘束後、開放されリビアを出国した。
3/1
2:04am リンク
ワハトの治安指令、准将とジャベルアルアカダーの治安指令が革命側に転向

The head of Al Wahat Security Directorate, Brigadier Musa’ed Al Mansouri, and the head of Jabel Al Akhdar Security Directorate, Brigadier Hassan Ibrahim Al Qarawi, have defected and joined the ‘revolution’:

We, Brigadier Musa’ed Ghaidan Al Mansouri the Head Al Wahat Security Directorate, and Brigadier Hassan Ibrahim Al Qarawi, the former head of Al Jabel Al Akhadar Security Directorate, announce our loyalty and the joining to the Feb 17 revolution of the Libyan people that aims for freedom, dignity and social justice and to end the injustice and oppression.

1:40am

トリポリから200kmのミスラタで戦闘、戦闘機とへりが放送局を空爆、戦闘機は海に墜落。

Abdullah, a witness speaking to Al Jazeera from Misurata, about 200km east of Tripoli, says:

There’s now artillery shelling on the suburbs of Misurata and on the Air force college, south west of Misurata. There are also helicopters trying to bomb the local broadcast.

They are also using heavy weapons against the protestors … also last night helicopters dropped leaflets and threats from the regime.

A plane fell in the sea and we arrested five of its crew … we have weapons trying to use to defend ourselves but it is normal weapons that cannot be compared to the planes or tanks or armored vehicles or the heavy weapons they use to bomb us … we are the defending righteous and freedom … we want him [Gaddafi] to leave.

欧州 リビア砂漠に救援機を派遣(ドイツ軍用機132名救出)(飛行許可なしで)

ミスラタでカダフィの親戚の准将が反体制派に拘束された。RAW, Libya, protesters in Misratah capture a Brigadier who is close to the Gaddafi family.



リビアの兵力

The French Connection?

LAND_Caesar_155_Mountains.jpg LAND VBL Bastille Day 2003

VBL

(click to view full)
Caesar
(click to view full)
In December 2007, media reports surfaced that a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with France covered: 14 Dassault Aviation Rafale combat aircraft and associated weapons, modernization of some of Libya’s Mirage F-1C fighters, a mix of Eurocopter Tiger, EC725 and AS550 Fennec helicopters, Ceasar truck-mounted 155mm howitzers, a mix of VAB, Sagaie, and VBL wheeled armored vehicles, fast patrol boats, and air defense radars. At the same time, Reuters reported Dassault CEO Charles Edelstenne as saying that:

Aug 2/07: Libya signs a confirmed EUR 296 million (about $405 million) deal with France for MBDA’s Milan anti-tank missiles, and Tetra communications equipment. China Daily | Spacewar | NTI profile covers Libyan missile stocks generally.

リビアの最新鋭ラファルーB戦闘機(14機)フランス製(2007)

2011/12配備予定のロシア製YAK-130 6機

12-15 Sukhoi Su-35 multirole fighters, another 4 Su-30s as an immediate interim order, and 6 Yakovlev Yak-130 trainer and light attack aircraft aircraft.

ロシア製SU-35 12ー15機、SU-30 4機、Yak-130 6機を追加発注

ATR-42MP Surveyor maritime patrol aircraft 哨戒機 1機

5.56x45mm NATO F2000™ Standard

2/25/2011

カナダの救援機が救助できずにトリポリ国際空港から引き返す。別の2機(カナダ空軍Cー17輸送機)はローマとクエートで着陸許可待ち。

Canadian Rescue Plane Leaves Tripoli Empty

By IAN AUSTEN
Published: February 25, 2011

OTTAWA — An evacuation flight chartered by the government of Canada made it into Tripoli on Friday morning, but after its crew was unable to find any Canadians at the chaotic airport, the airplane turned around and left empty.

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation reported that another chartered flight was dispatched to Tripoli following the botched rescue of 213 Canadians who have indicated that they want to leave. Mr. MacKay said that a Canadian Forces C-17, a large cargo jet, was standing by in Rome but had been unable to obtain Libyan landing clearances. Another military aircraft being used by David Johnston, the governor general of Canada, for a state visit to Kuwait, has also been made available to help with the evacuation.

2/25 リビア国際空港 脱出を待つ市民 欧米航空会社はリビア便をキャンセル

悪天候でトリポリのフェリー乗り場に数百人のアメリカ人が取り残されている。英国は歳からはなれた砂漠に孤立した170人の邦人救出に軍特殊部隊の派遣を検討。大量の不法移民の流入にイタリア政府が何色。エジプト、チュニジアの国境に逃げる外国人もいる。ドイツはEUの介入とリビア再建を提案。

ベンガジの港、ギリシャ行きフェリー、外国人労働者が脱出

中国人4200人フェリーでクレタ島に脱出

リビア情勢緊迫化:外国人の脱出加速-首都混乱で各国の救出活動難航

2月24日(ブルームバーグ):リビアでは、多数の外国人の国外脱出が困難な状況が続いている。首都トリポリでは暴動激化で外国人が足止めされているが、混乱が国内全域に拡大するなか脱出を図る人々はさらに増加しそうだ。

リビアからイタリア人約800人を23日に輸送した伊アリタリア航 空は、乗客が出発ゲートに到着できなかったためトリポリに向かう複数の航空便の運航を延期した。ドイツのルフトハンザ航空は少なくとも週末いっぱいトリポ リへの便を欠航とした。米国務省のクローリー報道官は23日、米国人数千人が避難を開始したが、リビアから地中海のマルタ島に向かうフェリーの運航が高波 のため遅れていると述べた。

キャメロン英首相は24日、オマーンで英国放送協会(BBC)のインタビューに応じ、「当然、極めて遺憾に思っている」と述べ、避難を待っている人々は「厳しい状況に置かれている。空港の現状は非常にひどい」との見解を示した。

リビア東部のエジプトとの国境に押し寄せた数千人のエジプト人労働者によると、リビアの最高指導者カダフィ大佐支持派の兵士らがトリポリの市民らに発砲しており、労働者の大半は帰国を目指している。イタリアは23日、リビアに最大35万人の移民労働者がおり、地中海を経由して欧州に避難するとの見通しを示した。

中国とトルコも自国民の避難に向け過去最大規模の取り組みを行っている。中国国営の新華社通信によると、多くがリビアの建設事業で勤務している中国人 推計3万人のうち4600人以上が脱出。トルコのダウトオール外相は23日、リビア在住のトルコ人最大2万5000人の救出に向けフェリーを派遣したこと を明らかにした。

チュニジア国境の様子 水曜に5700人が国境をこえた(レッドクロス)

エジプトーリビア国境 多くのリビア人がエジプトに脱出。ボランテイアとチャリテイが組織され医薬品などをリビアに搬送予定。

少なくとも26ヶ国ヶ国がリビアの邦人救出を開始した。(トリポリ空港の混乱)

各国の邦人救出状況

BC兵器の使用の危険(Mustafa Abdel Galil,resigned three days ago from his post as the country’s justice minister)、国連人権委員会は金曜にリビアに人権侵害の調査団の派遣検討会議を開く。リビアは10トンの化学兵器を保有。

Libyan chaos raises worries over chemical weapons stockpile

By Pam Benson, CNN National Security Producer
February 24, 2011 6:22 p.m. EST
STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • Arms expert: Libya still has about 10 tons of deadly mustard gas
  • In 2003, Libya agreed to destroy its entire chemical weapons arsenal
  • An international agency is overseeing the destruction
  • That agency had extended the deadline until May 15

Washington (CNN) — The chaos in Libya has raised fears about the security of deadly mustard gas stockpiled in the country and whether Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi might use it on his own people.

A U.S. official said that in a “chaotic situation” there is concern about Libya possessing mustard gas and other chemical agents.

Although there has been no signs that the Libyan leader has ordered their use, Gadhafi is often described by officials as an unpredictable, mercurial individual.

リビアは衛星電話回線の通信の妨害をはじめた。国外への情報流出を阻止。チュニジア国境では携帯とカメラが国境警備兵によって押収される。首都トリポリの食糧供給は充分だが価格は跳ね上がっている。

欧米諸国、リビア情勢に軍事介入も含めて検討

Obama talks Libya with leaders of France, Italy, UK

By the CNN Wire Staff
February 24, 2011 6:31 p.m. EST
In a phone call Thursday, the two presidents discussed their respective plans for the situation in Libya.
In a phone call Thursday, the two presidents discussed their respective plans for the situation in Libya.
STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • NEW: The White House says the leaders discussed a coordinated response
  • The French Embassy says Obama discussed planned measures
  • The White House spokesman says all options are under consideration
  • U.S. goals are to protect Americans and halt attacks on Libyan people

Washington (CNN) — President Barack Obama spoke Thursday with the leaders of France, Italy and the United Kingdom on coordinating an international response to the crisis in Libya, the White House said.

In separate phone conversations with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and British Prime Minister David Cameron, Obama “expressed his deep concern with the Libyan government’s use of violence which violates international norms and every standard of human decency, and discussed appropriate and effective ways for the international community to immediately respond,” the White House statement said.

2/23

内戦状態に陥りつつあるリビアで、同国東部を支配下に置いた反体制派の軍部隊は同日
までに指揮系統を統一、西部の制圧を進めている。AP通信が伝えた。最高指導者
カダフィ氏を拘束するため、首都トリポリの反体制派を支援するとしており、首都で本格
的な戦闘が起きる可能性が出ている。

反体制派が制圧したとみられるのは東部のトブルク、ベイダ、デルナ、ベンガジと西部
ズワラなど。ロイター通信は主要製油所がある北部ラスラヌフも反体制派が制圧したと
伝えた。APによると、トリポリ西郊ザーウィヤでは24日、激しい銃撃があり反体制派
に多数の死傷者が出ている。

こうした中、カダフィ氏は同日、国営テレビでザーウィヤ市民に向けたとする演説を
行い、「(国際テロ組織)アルカーイダにそそのかされるな。冷静さを取り戻せ」などと
呼びかけた。

ロイター通信などによると、隣国アルジェリアを拠点とするイスラム過激派組織
「イスラム・マグレブ諸国のアルカーイダ組織」は同日、ウェブサイト上で声明を出し、
リビアの反体制派への支援を表明した。

カダフィ氏はこうした動きを念頭に、一連の騒乱にアルカーイダが関与しているとの
見方を示すことで、自らへの批判を和らげようとしている可能性もある。

また、中東の衛星テレビ局アルジャジーラは23日、カダフィ大佐の長女アイーシャ
氏らを乗せたとみられる飛行機が地中海のマルタで着陸を拒否され、リビアに引き返した
と報じた。カダフィ氏は新たに外国人傭兵を募るなど反体制派に対する弾圧を強めている
が、同時に家族の脱出も図っていたことが明らかになった格好だ。

中東の衛星テレビ局アルアラビーヤなどは23日、カダフィ氏の七男ハミース氏の部隊
でも命令拒否が相次ぎ兵士十数人が処刑されたと報じた。
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/news/110225/mds11022500540001-n1.htm

カダフィ一家 中東ドバイ、アジアに巨額の隠し資産 A British newspaper reported that the President of the Libyan regimeMoammar Gaddafi and his family are hiding billions of dollars looted from oil export revenues in the secret accounts, especially in Dubai and South-East Asia. The daily quoted the Financial Times on its website for Professor Tim Niblock specialist in Middle East politics at the University of Exeter in Britain that discovered a gap between the billions of dollars in oil revenues and government spending.

カダフィ婦人ウイーンにプライベートジェットでお買い物 2/24

元第1婦人ファテイハ Fatiha (6ヶ月で離婚)

NATOはリビア情勢に介入する計画はない。要請も受けていない。キューバのカストロが米国がNATOに命令して、リビアに軍事介入すると警告、NATOは国連決議がないかぎり軍事介入はないと表明。

Nato not to intervene in Libya: Rasmussen

KIEV: Nato has no plans to intervene in the unrest in Libya and has received no request to do so, Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said after talks in Ukraine on Thursday.

“I would like to stress that NATO has no plans to intervene and we have not received any request,” Rasmussen said after talks with Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych.

“In any case, any action should be based on a clear United Nations mandate,” he added.

Former Cuban leader Fidel Castro claimed Tuesday the United States was about to order NATO to invade Libya to control its oil interests.

Washington “will not hesitate to give the order for NATO to invade that rich country, perhaps in the coming hours or days,” he claimed in an article written for official state media.

リビア情勢時系列(ルモンド)

リビア情勢時系列(ルモンド)2011/02/27

リビア情勢時系列(ルモンド)2011/02/26

リビア情勢時系列(ルモンド)2011/02/25

エジプト

Omar Suleiman, the former vice president of Hosni Mubarak

オマールスレイマン元副大統領の車両が大統領宮殿の近くで狙撃された。ボデイーガードが死亡、運転手が負傷、副大統領は無事。

リビア関連ブログ(BBC) アフリカ中東反政府デモ状況(ルモンド)

チュニス

January 22, 2011, 12:14 pm

Video That Set Off Tunisia’s Uprising

By ROBERT MACKEY
 

バーレーン

【マナマ】ペルシャ湾岸のバーレーンでは6日、数万人のデモ隊が閣議の行われた政府庁舎を取り囲んだ。反体制派が王家のハリファ家に抜本的な改革を受け入れるようさらに圧力をかけた形だ。

デモ隊は現地時間午前9時前から集まり出し、政府庁舎の4つの門全てに陣取り、政権打倒を繰り返し叫んだ。庁舎の門の内側では数百人の警官隊が警備に当たり、上空では警察のヘリコプターが周回した。

machikawaco3 について

a TORO lawn mower dealer in Japan
カテゴリー: NEWS パーマリンク

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